« Launched in 2023 for 6 years, the NumPEx program brings together over 500 researchers and engineers at the national level. One of the main drivers of the NumPEx program is the current paradigm shift in HPC system architectures with the rapid emergence of new technologies and applications (such as the digital continuum and AI), which necessitates the development and adaptation of HPC software stacks for forthcoming Exascale supercomputers. It is also crucial for scientific and industrial applications to prepare for post-Exascale systems and usages. The utilization of such supercomputers by academic and industrial researchers, with its potential for innovation and competitiveness, requires significant efforts in code adaptation and porting, both for simulation and data analysis. Adapting applications to these new architectures is a major scientific and technological challenge that necessitates substantial research efforts, made possible by the support of France 2030.”